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OHSAS 180001:2007

SCOPE

This Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS) specification gives requirements for an occupational health and safety (OH&S) management system, to enable an organization to control its OH&S risks and improve its performance. It does not state specific OH&S performance criteria, nor does it give detailed specifications for the design of a management system.

This OHSAS specification is applicable to any organization that wishes to:

  1. establish an OH&S management system to eliminate or minimize risk to employees and other interested parties who may be exposed to OH&S risks associated with its activities;
  2. implement, maintain and continually improve an OH&S management system;
  3. assure itself of its conformity with its stated OH&S policy;
  4. demonstrate conformity with this OHSAS Standard by:
    1. making a self-determination and self-declaration, or
    2. seeking confirmation of its conformance by parties having an interest in the organization, such as customers, or
    3. seeking confirmation of its self-declaration by a party external to the organization, or
    4. seeking certification/registration of its OH&S management system by an external organization.

All the requirements in this OHSAS Standard are intended to be incorporated into any OH&S management system. The extent of the application will depend on such factors as the OH&S policy of the organization, the nature of its activities and the risks and complexity of its operations.

This OHSAS Standard is intended to address occupational health and safety, and is not intended to address other health and safety areas such as employee wellbeing/wellness programmes, product safety, property damage or environmental impacts.

REFERENCE PUBLICATIONS

Other publications that provide information or guidance are listed in the bibliography. It is advisable that the latest editions of such publications be consulted. Specifically, reference should be made to:

  1. OHSAS 18002, Occupational health and safety management systems - Guidelines for the implementation of OHSAS 18001
  2. International Labour Organization:2001, Guidelines on Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OSH-MS)

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

For the purposes of this OHSAS specification the following term and definitions apply.

3.1 ACCEPTABLE RISK

risk that has been reduced to a level that can be tolerated by the organization having regard to its legal obligations and its own OH&S policy (3.16)

3.2 AUDIT

systematic, independent and documented process for obtaining "audit evidence" and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which "audit criteria" are fulfilled

[ISO 9000:2005, 3.9.1]

NOTE 1 Independent does not necessarily mean external to the organization. In many cases, particularly in smaller organizations, independence can be demonstrated by the freedom from responsibility for the activity being audited.

NOTE 2 For further guidance on "audit evidence" and "audit criteria", see ISO 19011.

3.3 CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT

recurring process of enhancing the OH&S management system (3.13) in order to achieve improvements in overall OH&S performance (3.15) consistent with the organization’s (3.17) OH&S policy (3.16)

NOTE 1 The process need not take place in all areas of activity simultaneously.

NOTE 2 Adapted from ISO 14001:2004, 3.2.

3.4 CORRECTIVE ACTION

action to eliminate the cause of a detected nonconformity (3.11) or other undesirable situation

NOTE 1 There can be more than one cause for a nonconformity

NOTE 2 Corrective action is taken to prevent recurrence whereas preventive action (3.18) is taken to prevent occurrence.

[ISO 9000:2005, 3.6.5]

3.5 DOCUMENT

information and its supporting medium

NOTE The medium can be paper, magnetic, electronic or optical computer disc, photograph or master sample, or a combination thereof.

[ISO 14001:2004, 3.4]

3.6 HAZARD

source, situation, or act with a potential for harm in terms of human injury or ill health (3.8), or a combination of these

3.7 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

process of recognizing that a hazard (3.6) exists and defining its characteristics

3.8 ILL HEALTH

identifiable, adverse physical or mental condition arising from and/or made worse by a work activity and/or work-related situation

3.9 INCIDENT

work-related event(s) in which an injury or ill health (3.8) (regardless of severity) or fatality occurred, or could have occurred

NOTE 1 An accident is an incident which has given rise to injury, ill health or fatality.
NOTE 2 An incident where no injury, ill health, or fatality occurs may also be referred to as a "near-miss", "near-hit", "close call" or "dangerous occurrence".
NOTE 3 An emergency situation (see 4.4.7) is a particular type of incident.

3.10 INTERESTED PARTY
person or group, inside or outside the workplace (3.23), concerned with or affected by the OH&S performance (3.15) of an organization (3.17)

3.11 NONCONFORMITY
non-fulfilment of a requirement [ISO 9000:2005, 3.6.2; ISO 14001, 3.15]
NOTE A nonconformity can be any deviation from: # relevant work standards, practices, procedures, legal requirements, etc. # OH&S management system (3.13) requirements.

3.12 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & SAFETY
(OH&S) conditions and factors that affect, or could affect, the health and safety of employees or other workers (including temporary workers and contractor personnel), visitors, or any other person in the workplace (3.23)

NOTE Organizations can be subject to legal requirements for the health and safety of persons beyond the immediate workplace, or who are exposed to the workplace activities.

3.13 OH&S MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

part of an organization’s (3.17) management system used to develop and implement its OH&S policy (3.16) and manage its OH&S risks (3.21)

NOTE 1 A management system is a set of interrelated elements used to establish policy and objectives and to achieve those objectives.
NOTE 2 A management system includes organizational structure, planning activities (including, for example, risk assessment and the setting of objectives), responsibilities, practices, procedures (3.19), processes and resources.
NOTE 3 Adapted from ISO 14001:2004, 3.8.

3.14 OH&S OBJECTIVE

OH&S goal, in terms of OH&S performance (3.15), that an organization (3.17) sets itself to achieve

NOTE 1 Objectives should be quantified wherever practicable.
NOTE 2 4.3.3 requires that OH&S objectives are consistent with the OH&S policy (3.16).

3.15 OH&S PERFORMANCE

measurable results of an organization's (3.17) management of its OH&S risks (3.21)

NOTE 1 OH&S performance measurement includes measuring the effectiveness of the organization’s controls.NOTE 2 In the context of OH&S management systems (3.13), results can also be measured against the organizatio''s (3.17) OH&S policy (3.16), OH&S objectives (3.14), and other OH&S performance requirements.

3.16 OH&S POLICY

overall intentions and direction of an organization (3.17) related to its OH&S performance (3.15) as formally expressed by top management

NOTE 1 The OH&S policy provides a framework for action and for the setting of OH&S objectives (3.14)
NOTE 2 Adapted from ISO 14001:2004, 3.11.

3.17 ORGANIZATION

company, corporation, firm, enterprise, authority or institution, or part or combination thereof, whether incorporated or not, public or private, that has its own functions and administration

NOTE For organizations with more than one operating unit, a single operating unit may be defined as an organization.

[ISO 14001:2004, 3.16]

3.18 PREVENTATIVE ACTION

action to eliminate the cause of a potential nonconformity (3.11) or other undesirable potential situation

NOTE 1 There can be more than one cause for a potential nonconformity.

NOTE 2 Preventive action is taken to prevent occurrence whereas corrective action (3.4) is taken to prevent recurrence.

[ISO 9000:2005, 3.6.4]

3.19 PROCEDURE

specified way to carry out an activity or a process

NOTE Procedures can be documented or not.

[ISO 9000:2005, 3.4.5]

3.20 RECORD

document (3.5) stating results achieved or providing evidence of activities performed

[ISO 14001:2004, 3.20]

3.21 RISK

combination of the likelihood of an occurrence of a hazardous event or exposure(s) and the severity of injury or ill health (3.8) that can be caused by the event or exposure(s)

3.22 RISK ASSESMENT
process of evaluating the risk(s) (3.21) arising from a hazard(s), taking into account the adequacy of any existing controls, and deciding whether or not the risk(s) is acceptable

3.23 WORKPLACE

any physical location in which work related activities are performed under the control of the organization

NOTE When giving consideration to what constitutes a workplace, the organization (3.17) should take into account the OH&S effects on personnel who are, for example, travelling or in transit (e.g. driving, flying, on boats or trains), working at the premises of a client or customer, or working at home.

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

The organization shall establish, document, implement, maintain and continually improve an OH&S management system in accordance with the requirements of this OHSAS Standard and determine how it will fulfil these requirements.

The organization shall define and document the scope of its OH&S management system.

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY

Top management shall define and authorize the organization's OH&S policy and ensure that within the defined scope of its OH&S management system it:

  1. is appropriate to the nature and scale of the organization's OH&S risks;
  2. includes a commitment to prevention of injury and ill health and continual improvement in OH&S management and OH&S performance;
  3. includes a commitment to at least comply with applicable legal requirements and with other requirements to which the organization subscribes that relate to its OH&S hazards;
  4. provides the framework for setting and reviewing OH&S objectives;
  5. is documented, implemented and maintained;
  6. is communicated to all persons working under the control of the organization with the intent that they are made aware of their individual OH&S obligations;
  7. is available to interested parties; and
  8. is reviewed periodically to ensure that it remains relevant and appropriate to the organization.

PLANNING

4.3.1 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION, RISK ASSESMENT & DETERMINING CONTROLS

The organization shall establish, implement and maintain a procedure(s) for the ongoing identification of hazards, risk assessment, and determination of necessary controls.

The procedure(s) for hazard identification and risk assessment shall take into account:

  1. routine and non-routine activities;
  2. activities of all persons having access to the workplace (including contractors and visitors);
  3. human behaviour, capabilities and other human factors;
  4. identified hazards originating outside the workplace capable of adversely affecting the health and safety of persons under the control of the organization within the workplace;
  5. hazards created in the vicinity of the workplace by work-related activities under the control of the organization;
    NOTE 1 It may be more appropriate for such hazards to be assessed as an environmental aspect.
  6. infrastructure, equipment and materials at the workplace, whether provided by the organization or others;
  7. changes or proposed changes in the organization, its activities, or materials;
  8. modifications to the OH&S management system, including temporary changes, and their impacts on operations, processes, and activities;
  9. any applicable legal obligations relating to risk assessment and implementation of necessary controls (see also the NOTE to 3.12);
  10. the design of work areas, processes, installations, machinery/equipment, operating procedures and work organization, including their adaptation to human capabilities.

The organization's methodology for hazard identification and risk assessment shall:

  • be defined with respect to its scope, nature and timing to ensure it is proactive rather than reactive; and
  • provide for the identification, prioritization and documentation of risks, and the application of controls, as appropriate.

For the management of change, the organization shall identify the OH&S hazards and OH&S risks associated with changes in the organization, the OH&S management system, or its activities, prior to the introduction of such changes.

The organization shall ensure that the results of these assessments are considered when determining controls. When determining controls, or considering changes to existing controls, consideration shall be given to reducing the risks according to the following hierarchy:

  1. elimination;
  2. substitution;
  3. engineering controls;
  4. signage/warnings and/or administrative controls;
  5. personal protective equipment.

The organization shall document and keep the results of identification of hazards, risk assessments and determined controls up-to-date.

The organization shall ensure that the OH&S risks and determined controls are taken into account when establishing, implementing and maintaining its OH&S management system.

NOTE 2 For further guidance on hazard identification, risk assessment and determining controls, see OHSAS 18002.

4.3.2 LEGAL & OTHER REQUIREMENTS
The organization shall establish, implement and maintain a procedure(s) for identifying and accessing the legal and other OH&S requirements that are applicable to it.

The organization shall ensure that these applicable legal requirements and other requirements to which the organization subscribes are taken into account in establishing, implementing and maintaining its OH&S management system.

The organization shall keep this information up-to-date.

The organization shall communicate relevant information on legal and other requirements to persons working under the control of the organization, and other relevant interested parties.

4.3.3 OBJECTIVES

The organization shall establish, implement and maintain documented OH&S objectives, at relevant functions and levels within the organization.

The objectives shall be measurable, where practicable, and consistent with the OH&S policy, including the commitments to the prevention of injury and ill health, to compliance with applicable legal requirements and with other requirements to which the organization subscribes, and to continual improvement.

When establishing and reviewing its objectives, an organization shall take into account the legal requirements and other requirements to which the organization subscribes, and its OH&S risks. It shall also consider its technological options, its financial, operational and business requirements, and the views of relevant interested parties.

The organization shall establish, implement and maintain a programme(s) for achieving its objectives. Programme(s) shall include as a minimum:

  1. designation of responsibility and authority for achieving objectives at relevant functions and levels of the organization; and
  2. the means and time-frame by which the objectives are to be achieved.

The programme(s) shall be reviewed at regular and planned intervals, and adjusted as necessary, to ensure that the objectives are achieved.

IMPLEMENTATION & OPERATION

4.4.1 RESOURCES, ROLES, RESPONSIBILITY, ACCOUNTABILITY & AUTHORITY
Top management shall take ultimate responsibility for OH&S and the OH&S management system.

Top management shall demonstrate its commitment by:

  1. ensuring the availability of resources essential to establish, implement, maintain and improve the OH&S management system;
    NOTE 1 Resources include human resources and specialized skills, organizational infrastructure, technology and financial resources.

  2. defining roles, allocating responsibilities and accountabilities, and delegating authorities, to facilitate effective OH&S management; roles, responsibilities, accountabilities, and authorities shall be documented and communicated.

The organization shall appoint a member(s) of top management with specific responsibility for OH&S, irrespective of other responsibilities, and with defined roles and authority for:

  1. ensuring that the OH&S management system is established, implemented and maintained in accordance with this OHSAS Standard;
  2. ensuring that reports on the performance of the OH&S management system are presented to top management for review and used as a basis for improvement of the OH&S management system.
    NOTE 2 The top management appointee (e.g. in a large organization, a Board or executive committee member) may delegate some of their duties to a subordinate management representative(s) while still retaining accountability.

The identity of the top management appointee shall be made available to all persons working under the control of the organization.

All those with management responsibility shall demonstrate their commitment to the continual improvement of OH&S performance.

The organization shall ensure that persons in the workplace take responsibility for aspects of OH&S over which they have control, including adherence to the organization's applicable OH&S requirements.

4.4.2 COMPETENCE & TRAINING AWARENESS

The organization shall ensure that any person(s) under its control performing tasks that can impact on OH&S is (are) competent on the basis of appropriate education, training or experience, and shall retain associated records.

The organization shall identify training needs associated with its OH&S risks and its OH&S management system. It shall provide training or take other action to meet these needs, evaluate the effectiveness of the training or action taken, and retain associated records.

The organization shall establish, implement and maintain a procedure(s) to make persons working under its control aware of:

  1. the OH&S consequences, actual or potential, of their work activities, their behaviour, and the OH&S benefits of improved personal performance;
  2. their roles and responsibilities and importance in achieving conformity to the OH&S policy and procedures and to the requirements of the OH&S management system, including emergency preparedness and response requirements (see 4.4.7);
  3. the potential consequences of departure from specified procedures.

Training procedures shall take into account differing levels of:

  1. responsibility, ability, language skills and literacy; and
  2. risk.

4.4.3 COMMUNICATION, PARTICIPATION & CONSULTATION

4.4.3.1 Communication
With regard to its OH&S hazards and OH&S management system, the organization shall establish, implement and maintain a procedure(s) for:

  1. internal communication among the various levels and functions of the organization;
  2. communication with contractors and other visitors to the workplace;
  3. receiving, documenting and responding to relevant communications from external interested parties.

4.4.3.2 Participation & consultation

The organization shall establish, implement and maintain a procedure(s) for:

the participation of workers by their:

  1. appropriate involvement in hazard identification, risk assessments and determination of controls;
    1. appropriate involvement in incident investigation;
    2. involvement in the development and review of OH&S policies and objectives;
    3. consultation where there are any changes that affect their OH&S;
    4. representation on OH&S matters.
       
  2. Workers shall be informed about their participation arrangements, including who is their representative(s) on OH&S matters.
    1. consultation with contractors where there are changes that affect their OH&S.

The organization shall ensure that, when appropriate, relevant external interested parties are consulted about pertinent OH&S matters.

4.4.4 DOCUMENTATION

The OH&S management system documentation shall include:

  1. the OH&S policy and objectives;
  2. description of the scope of the OH&S management system;
  3. description of the main elements of the OH&S management system and their interaction, and reference to related documents;
  4. documents, including records, required by this OHSAS Standard; and
  5. documents, including records, determined by the organization to be necessary to ensure the effective planning, operation and control of processes that relate to the management of its OH&S risks.

NOTE It is important that documentation is proportional to the level of complexity, hazards and risks concerned and is kept to the minimum required for effectiveness and efficiency.

4.4.5 CONTROL OF DOCUMENTS

Documents required by the OH&S management system and by this OHSAS Standard shall be controlled. Records are a special type of document and shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements given in 4.5.4.

The organization shall establish, implement and maintain a procedure(s) to:

  1. approve documents for adequacy prior to issue;
  2. review and update as necessary and re-approve documents;
  3. ensure that changes and the current revision status of documents are identified;
  4. ensure that relevant versions of applicable documents are available at points of use;
  5. ensure that documents remain legible and readily identifiable;
  6. ensure that documents of external origin determined by the organization to be necessary for the planning and operation of the OH&S management system are identified and their distribution controlled; and
  7. prevent the unintended use of obsolete documents and apply suitable identification to them if they are retained for any purpose.

4.4.6 OPERATIONAL CONTROL

The organization shall determine those operations and activities that are associated with the identified hazard(s) where the implementation of controls is necessary to manage the OH&S risk(s). This shall include the management of change (see 4.3.1).

For those operations and activities, the organization shall implement and maintain:

  1. operational controls, as applicable to the organization and its activities; the organization shall integrate those operational controls into its overall OH&S management system;
  2. controls related to purchased goods, equipment and services;
  3. controls related to contractors and other visitors to the workplace;
  4. documented procedures, to cover situations where their absence could lead to deviations from the OH&S policy and the objectives;
  5. stipulated operating criteria where their absence could lead to deviations from the OH&S policy and objectives.

4.4.7 EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE

The organization shall establish, implement and maintain a procedure(s):

  1. to identify the potential for emergency situations;
  2. to respond to such emergency situations.

The organization shall respond to actual emergency situations and prevent or mitigate associated adverse OH&S consequences.

In planning its emergency response the organization shall take account of the needs of relevant interested parties, e.g. emergency services and neighbours.

The organization shall also periodically test its procedure(s) to respond to emergency situations, where practicable, involving relevant interested parties as appropriate.

The organization shall periodically review and, where necessary, revise its emergency preparedness and response procedure(s), in particular, after periodical testing and after the occurrence of emergency situations (see 4.5.3).

CHECKING

4.5.1 PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT AND MONITORING

The organization shall establish, implement and maintain a procedure(s) to monitor and measure OH&S performance on a regular basis. This procedure(s) shall provide for:

  1. both qualitative and quantitative measures, appropriate to the needs of the organization;

  2. monitoring of the extent to which the organization's OH&S objectives are met;
  3. monitoring the effectiveness of controls (for health as well as for safety);
  4. proactive measures of performance that monitor conformance with the OH&S programme(s), controls and operational criteria;
  5. reactive measures of performance that monitor ill health, incidents (including accidents, near-misses, etc.), and other historical evidence of deficient OH&S performance;
  6. recording of data and results of monitoring and measurement sufficient to facilitate subsequent corrective action and preventive action analysis.

If equipment is required to monitor or measure performance, the organization shall establish and maintain procedures for the calibration and maintenance of such equipment, as appropriate. Records of calibration and maintenance activities and results shall be retained.

4.5.2 EVALUATION OF COMPLIENCE

Consistent with its commitment to compliance [see 4.2c)], the organization shall establish, implement and maintain a procedure(s) for periodically evaluating compliance with applicable legal requirements (see 4.3.2).

The organization shall keep records of the results of the periodic evaluations.

NOTE The frequency of periodic evaluation may vary for differing legal requirements.

The organization shall evaluate compliance with other requirements to which it subscribes (see 4.3.2). The organization may wish to combine this evaluation with the evaluation of legal compliance referred to in 4.5.2.1 or to establish a separate procedure(s).

The organization shall keep records of the results of the periodic evaluations.

NOTE The frequency of periodic evaluation may vary for differing other requirements to which the organization subscribes.

4.5.3 INCIDENT INVESTIGATION, NON CONFORMITY, CORRECTIVE ACTION AND PREVENTIVE ACTION

4.5.3.1 Incident investigation

The organization shall establish, implement and maintain a procedure(s) to record, investigate and analyse incidents in order to:

  1. determine underlying OH&S deficiencies and other factors that might be causing or contributing to the occurrence of incidents;
  2. identify the need for corrective action;
  3. identify opportunities for preventive action;
  4. identify opportunities for continual improvement;
  5. communicate the results of such investigations.

The investigations shall be performed in a timely manner.

Any identified need for corrective action or opportunities for preventive action shall be dealt with in accordance with the relevant parts of 4.5.3.2.

The results of incident investigations shall be documented and maintained.

4.5.3.2 Nonconformity, corrective action and preventive action

The organization shall establish, implement and maintain a procedure(s) for dealing with actual and potential nonconformity(ies) and for taking corrective action and preventive action. The procedure(s) shall define requirements for:

  1. identifying and correcting nonconformity(ies) and taking action(s) to mitigate their OH&S consequences;
  2. investigating nonconformity(ies), determining their cause(s) and taking actions in order to avoid their recurrence;
  3. evaluating the need for action(s) to prevent nonconformity(ies) and implementing appropriate actions designed to avoid their occurrence;
  4. recording and communicating the results of corrective action(s) and preventive action(s) taken; and
  5. reviewing the effectiveness of corrective action(s) and preventive action(s) taken.

Where the corrective action and preventive action identifies new or changed hazards or the need for new or changed controls, the procedure shall require that the proposed actions shall be taken through a risk assessment prior to implementation.

Any corrective action or preventive action taken to eliminate the causes of actual and potential nonconformity(ies) shall be appropriate to the magnitude of problems and commensurate with the OH&S risk(s) encountered.

The organization shall ensure that any necessary changes arising from corrective action and preventive action are made to the OH&S management system documentation.

4.5.4 CONTROL OF RECORDS

The organization shall establish and maintain records as necessary to demonstrate conformity to the requirements of its OH&S management system and of this OHSAS Standard, and the results achieved.

The organization shall establish, implement and maintain a procedure(s) for the identification, storage, protection, retrieval, retention and disposal of records.

Records shall be and remain legible, identifiable and traceable.

4.5.5 INTERNAL AUDIT

The organization shall ensure that internal audits of the OH&S management system are conducted at planned intervals to:

  1. determine whether the OH&S management system:
  2. conforms to planned arrangements for OH&S management, including the requirements of this OHSAS Standard; and
  3. has been properly implemented and is maintained; and
  4. is effective in meeting the organization's policy and objectives;
  5. provide information on the results of audits to management.

Audit programme(s) shall be planned, established, implemented and maintained by the organization, based on the results of risk assessments of the organization’s activities, and the results of previous audits. Audit procedure(s) shall be established, implemented and maintained that address:

  • the responsibilities, competencies, and requirements for planning and conducting audits, reporting results and retaining associated records; and
  • the determination of audit criteria, scope, frequency and methods.

Selection of auditors and conduct of audits shall ensure objectivity and the impartiality of the audit process.

MANAGEMENT REVIEW

Top management shall review the organization’s OH&S management system, at planned intervals, to ensure its continuing suitability, adequacy and effectiveness. Reviews shall include assessing opportunities for improvement and the need for changes to the OH&S management system, including the OH&S policy and OH&S objectives. Records of the management reviews shall be retained.

Input to management reviews shall include:

  1. results of internal audits and evaluations of compliance with applicable legal requirements and with other requirements to which the organization subscribes;

  2. the results of participation and consultation (see 4.4.3);
  3. relevant communication(s) from external interested parties, including complaints;
  4. the OH&S performance of the organization;
  5. the extent to which objectives have been met;
  6. status of incident investigations, corrective actions and preventive actions;
  7. follow-up actions from previous management reviews;
  8. changing circumstances, including developments in legal and other requirements related to OH&S; and
  9. recommendations for improvement.

The outputs from management reviews shall be consistent with the organization’s commitment to continual improvement and shall include any decisions and actions related to possible changes to:

  1. OH&S performance;
  2. OH&S policy and objectives;
  3. resources; and
  4. other elements of the OH&S management system.

Relevant outputs from management review shall be made available for communication and consultation (see 4.4.3).


 

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